The Colchagua Valley is situated approximately between 34 °15’ and 34 ° 50’ South and 72°00’ and 70°15’ West, just 130 km (81 mi) south of the Chilean capital of Santiago. It is bordered on the north by the Province of Cachapoal, on the west by the Pacific Ocean, on the east by the Andes Mountains, and on the south by the Province of Curicó. The Colchagua Valley was carved out naturally by the Tinguiririca River, which flows down from the Andes Mountains from its headwaters at the base of the 4300-meter (14,100 ft) Tinguiririca Volcano, then runs 100 km (62 mi) before emptying into Rapel Lake.

With its east-west orientation between the Andes Mountains and the Pacific Ocean, the Colchagua Valley has a shape typical of the transverse valleys of Central Chile, with one important difference; it is bordered by two spurs of the Andes Mountains, continuous north and south mountain chains separated by an average distance of 35 km (22 mi); by the Coastal Mountain Range, with altitudes that do not exceed 500 m (1,640 ft); and by the Andes Mountains themselves, with peaks averaging 4700 m (15,420 ft). In just 120 km (75 mi) the Colchagua Valley extends from sea level at the Pacific Ocean to the 5000 m (16,400 ft) peaks of the Andes.

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